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Hi. How wonderful, my friend to see you again. I was gone for a while. Now I’m happy and so glad to be here. Seven years ago I was wasting time reading on the internet using StumbleUpon, and I stumbled upon this page: which made me curious about the rest of the website. The […]

From “Before the Industrial Revolution” by Carlo M. Cipolla


During the seventeenth century the English came to a full realization of their power. And in vigor lies the seed of aggression. The English brought forward their theory of  Mare Clausum in opposition to the Dutch theory of Mare Liberum. A Swedish diplomat who attempted to mediate between the two nations wrote form London to […]



Hi. At the address you will find the implementation of the method described in the paper I submitted to I cannot understand the following picture: